UNIVERSITY OF MAINE AT FARMINGTON
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, HEALTH AND REHABILITATION
LESSON PLAN FORMAT

Teacher’s Name: Kay Sue Collins Date of Lesson: 5 Empathy
Grade Level: 10 Topic: Mutation and Evolution
Objectives
Student will understand that new organisms come from the recombination of genetic material and DNA changes over time through mutation and genetic engineering, resulting in new traits, disease and evolving species.
Student will know how to use a pedigree chart to track the occurrence of a genetic disease and predict the chances of someone getting the disease.
Student will be able to consider the consequences of dominant and recessive genes in disease control by researching a genetic disease and presenting the genetic causes of the disease with a type II technology (I-movie, garage band etc) to be added to the Glogster.in lesson 6


Maine Learning Results Alignment
Maine Learning Results: Science, and Technology - E. The Living Environment
E4: Heredity and Reproduction
Grade 9-Diploma - Genetics
Students examine the role of DNA in transferring traits from generation to generation, in differentiating cells, and in evolving new species
Rationale: Students will learn how mutations in DNA will cause genetic diseases and that they can be passed from one generation to another in predictable ratios.



Assessment
Formative (Assessment for Learning)
Students will be assessed through discussion contributions, and questions.
Students will have an opportunity to self assess and gain feedback from the teacher by correcting their pedigree chart during the review in class.
Students will bring their ideas for a disease to research and the project to the teacher for review and feedback before completing the project.
Summative (Assessment of Learning)
Students will complete a genetics worksheet involving the use of pedigree charts in predicting the genotype of an individual based on the appearance of a trait in their family.
Students will research a disease with a genetic component and present the genetic information with the Type II technology of their choice to be added to the glogster that is part of the WebQuest activity.





Integration
Technology:
Students will use the internet to research a genetic disease and present the causes of the disease with a type II technology. Instructions for the WebQuest can be found on the internet for all students to access.


Math:
Students will use charts and graphs to predict the genotype of individuals within a family based on a particular phenotypic trait.

Groupings
Students will work in groups of three as they complete the genetic pedigree chart worksheet. They can choose the groups unless there are behavior issues I need to address, and then I will group them according to need. They will work individually on the disease research.
Differentiated Instruction

Strategies:
Musical: Students will have the option of adding music to their presentation of their genetic disease.
Logical: Students will use logical skills to interpret the results of the pedigree chart, and make predictions based on those results.
Interpersonal: Students will interact with peers during pedigree worksheet.
Visual: Students will use visual skills to interpret the pedigree chart and while looking at the pictures of genetic abnormalities.
Linguistic: Students will use language to research and describe the disease they are working on.
Intrapersonal: Students will work individually on the research of their disease.
Naturalist: Students will understand how genetic diseases affect the natural world by looking at pictures of genetic abnormalities in animals.


Modifications/Accommodations
I will review student’s IEP, 504 or ELLIDEP and make appropriate modifications and accommodations.
If students are absent I will need them to check in with me so I can review the information for them and explain the instructions. The research on the genetic disease is all explained in the WebQuest which is online. Therefore, those who are absent can get all the information to get started online, and don't need to be in class.
Extensions
GT students can spend extra time studying their disease and get more information.
Students will use a Web 2.0 program to compile the ‘genetic causes’ information and add it to the Glogster in lesson 6.
Materials, Resources and Technology
  • a laptop for each student
  • Projector and screen



Source for Lesson Plan and Research
Pictures of genetic abnormalities.
http://markitscience.blogspot.com/2008/11/eye-opening-genetic-malformation.html
http://pakway.blogspot.com/2009/11/20-most-bizarre-congenital-defects.html
http://supertremendous.com/Galleries/Bizarre/20-Amazing-Circus-Freaks/The-Four-Legged-Lady-364.html#joomimg

http://www.toptenz.net/10-two-headed-animals.php

The Open Door Web Site: Description of Pedigree chart and how they work.
http://www.saburchill.com/IBbiology/chapters03/006.html

Muscular Distrophy Pedigree chart
http://www.docstoc.com/docs/9869387/Muscular-Dystrophy-Pedigree-Chart

Web site w/lesson plan
http://ctap295.borderlink.org/mmarquez/

Human Genetics problem set
http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/problem_sets/human_genetics/05t.html

Genetics worksheet
http://www.svusd.k12.ca.us/schools/lhhs/mccormacks/apbiowebpage/Assignments/genetics%20wkst.pdf

Maine Standards for Initial Teacher Certification and Rationale
Standard 3 - Demonstrates a knowledge of the diverse ways in which students learn and develop by providing learning opportunities that support their intellectual, physical, emotional, social, and cultural development.
Rationale:
Beachball learners will be able to choose their own form of expressing their understanding of the causes of the disease.
Clipboard learners will have very clear instructions on what is expected for the research of their disease.
Microscope learners will be able to look at a disease in detail in order to understand the causes of the disease.
Puppy learners will have an opportunity to learn about the struggles of those with genetic diseases and have compassion for them.

Standard 4 - Plans instruction based upon knowledge of subject matter, students, curriculum goals, and learning and development theory.
Rationale:
Student will understand that new organisms come from the recombination of genetic material and DNA changes over time through mutation and genetic engineering, resulting in new traits, disease and evolving species.(MLR)
Student will know how to use a pedigree chart to track the occurrence of a genetic disease and predict the chances of someone getting the disease.
Student will be able to consider the consequences of dominant and recessive genes in disease control by researching a genetic disease and presenting the genetic causes of the disease with a type II technology (I-movie, garage band etc) to be added to the Glogster.in lesson 6 (Empathy)


Standard 5 - Understands and uses a variety of instructional strategies and appropriate technology to meet students’ needs.
Rationale:
Musical: Students will have the option of adding music to their presentation of their genetic disease.
Logical: Students will use logical skills to interpret the results of the pedigree chart, and make predictions based on those results.
Interpersonal: Students will interact with peers during pedigree worksheet.
Visual: Students will use visual skills to interpret the pedigree chart and while looking at the pictures of genetic abnormalities.
Linguistic: Students will use language to research and describe the disease they are working on.
Intrapersonal: Students will work individually on the research of their disease.
Naturalist: Students will understand how genetic diseases affect the natural world by looking at pictures of genetic abnormalities in animals.

Technology: Students will use the internet to research a genetic disease and present the causes of the disease with a type II techology. Instructions for the WebQuest can be found on the internet for all students to access.

Standard 8 - Understands and uses a variety of formal and informal assessment strategies to evaluate and support the development of the learner.
Rationale:
Formative (Assessment for Learning)
Students will be assessed through discussion contributions, and questions.
Students will have an opportunity to self assess and gain feedback from the teacher by correcting their pedigree chart during the review in class.
Students will bring their ideas for a disease to research and the project to the teacher for review and feedback before completing the project.

Summative (Assessment of Learning)
Students will complete a genetics worksheet involving the use of pedigree charts in predicting the genotype of an individual based on the appearance of a trait in their family.
Students will research a disease with a genetic component and present the genetic information with the Type II technology of their choice to be added to the glogster that is part of the WebQuest activity.


Teaching and Learning Sequence:
This lesson will discuss the role of mutations in creating new traits and increasing the number of alleles for a particular trait. They will focus on the role of genetics on disease and how to use a pedigree chart to track the probability that an individual is a carrier for a particular trait. They will research a disease that interests them and create a presentation on the causes of the disease to add to the Glogster in lesson 6. Day 1: The classroom will be set up in groups of three desks together in a semicircle facing the front of the room. I will begin by showing the students pictures of genetic abnormalities to get them thinking about mutations and how they happen (Hook)(10 minutes)
Students will understand that new organisms come from the recombination of genetic material and DNA changes over time through mutation and genetic engineering, resulting in new traits, disease and evolving speciesStudents need to understand the consequences of genetic mutations and how they can be passed on to protect themselves and their families and understand their health care. Students examine the role of DNA in transferring traits from generation to generation, in differentiating cells, and in evolving new species.
Where, Why, What, Hook, Tailors: Visual, Linguistic, Logical
I will explain that there are three different causes of diseases; infections by another organism, some kind of environmental cause such as mercury or lead poisoning, or something in the body that doesn’t work right. The students will be asked to go to the board and write the name of a different disease that has a genetic component: Heart disease, cancer, kidney stones, Alzheimer’s, Down’s syndrome, cystic fibrosis, autism, etc. We will have a discussion about what causes these diseases focusing on the idea that all disease has a genetic component. I will then ask where these mutant genes come from? I will then have a discussion with the students about the causes of mutations and the results of the mutations on the individual, and the species as a whole. (See content notes) I will make sure through the discussion that they all understand the concept that mutations can be either good or bad, that most are lethal but that they are important to a species’ ability to adapt to a changing environment (30 minutes). I will introduce them to genetic pedigree charts. I will show them how they are notated and how to use them focusing on how to determine autosomal vs. sex linked diseases and dominant vs. recessive diseases. I will use the The Biology Project paper and the sickle cell pedigree paper as examples for the discussion. (10 minutes) They will spend the rest of the period working in groups of three to complete the worksheets. (30 minutes) Students will use the pedigree chart worksheet to think about the consequences of inheriting a mutation and their understanding of how these mutations happen.
Equip, Explore Rethink, Revise, Tailors: Visual, Linguistic, Interpersonal, Kinesthetic, Logical, Naturalist


Day 2: I will review the worksheet from the day before, allowing the students to revise their answers (in another color ink) as well as giving those who were absent the day before a chance to look at the information before moving on to the next activity (15 minutes) Students will then get out their laptops and I will direct them to the WebQuest page through a link in the class wiki. I will explain what a WebQuest is and give them a few minutes to read the introduction and task. I will then take them on a virtual tour of the Jackson Laboratory web site, using my excitement for the program to get them excited as well. I will guide them in exploring the site to get them interested in the program. (20 minutes) (Hook) In order to give them a chance to study the effects of mutations on disease the students will research a genetic disease. I will bring them back to the WebQuest and refer them to step 1 of the process, which is choosing a disease. I have provided web sites that will give them some ideas and information. At this time the students will only research the cause of the disease. They will need to know the location of the mutated gene (which chromosome?) and the name of the gene and/or the protein that is coded for if that information is known. They will need to know if the disease is autosomal, or x-linked, and whether it is dominant or recessive (45 minutes). Students will be able to consider the consequences of dominant and recessive genes in disease control by researching a genetic disease and presenting the genetic causes of the disease with a type II technology (I-movie, garage band etc) to be added to the Glogster.in lesson 6
Explore, Experience, Rethink, Revise, Refine, Tailors: Logical, Linguistic, Visual, Intrapersonal, Naturalist
Day 3: The students will continue to research the disease they are working on. When they have found all the genetic information they need they will decide on a format to convey this information. It needs to be a type II technology that can be added to a Glogster. Suggestions would be a podcast or I-movie, Comic Life, or Extra-normal. They will work on this in class to get started. I will record the disease they are studying, and the format that they are using to demonstrate their understanding. The students who are not done will complete their projects as homework. It will be due for review in one week. Students will be graded on content and creativity. They will have a checklist to check for completion (20 points). Students will also receive points for completion of the pedigree chart worksheet. (5 points)
Evaluate, Tailors: Linguistic, Logical, Musical, Visual, Interpersonal, Naturalist


Content Notes
  • Mutations are changes in the nucleotide sequence of a gene. These can come in the form of an addition, a deletion, or a rearrangement of nucleotides.
  • Mutations are often caused by errors in crossing over.
  • Somatic cell mutations can be caused by chemical or radiation damage to individual cells.
  • Mutations can cause new alleles for a gene. Most are detrimental, but occasionally one is advantageous.
  • Some mutations are immediately deadly; others can make the individual less fit, such as sickle cell anemia and can eventually lead to death.
  • On the other hand, carriers for sickle cell have a better survival rate in areas where malaria is prevalent. The disease provides protections against malaria.
  • Mutations can be dominant or recessive
  • Dominant genes are always expressed. If you have one copy, you have the disease.
  • Recessive genes are only expressed only when there are two copies of the disease. Expression is suppressed by the dominant allele.
  • Those with a single copy of a recessive allele are called carriers. They have a 50% chance of passing that allele on to their children.
  • There are many diseases that are caused by these recessive alleles.
  • Some mutations are found on chromosomes that come in exact pairs. They are called autosomal chromosomes.
  • Others are attached to a sex chromosome. These are called sex-linked alleles. Because the X chromosome is s much larger than the Y, most sex linked diseases are found on the X chromosome.
  • Some sex linked diseases are baldness, colorblindness, and hemophilia.
  • Many more men have these diseases than women because they only need one copy of the disease because they have only 1 X chromosome
  • Women have 2 X chromosomes and therefore need to have both copies of recessive genes for the disease to be expressed.
  • In plants and animal it is possible to study a trait by doing a test cross with homogeneous individuals
  • In humans it would be unethical to control these individuals. Instead we record the family history of the disease.
  • A pedigree chart is used by geneticists to organize family data.
Handouts
  • Genetic pedigree chart worksheet
  • Project checklist